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Information on Labour Market Reform

Reform Objective

Formation of an up-to-date and balanced labour relation system that protects employee’s rights and is effective for an employer.

Formation of an effective system of state monitoring and control of compliance with the labour law and employment of the population.

Overcoming the informal employment phenomenon, wage arrears, a gender pay gap;

Formation of a new national prevention system of occupational hazards through the legislative introduction of risk-oriented approach in the field of occupational safety and health of employees;

Formation of an effective system of the collective-agreement-based regulation of labour remuneration, formation of an up-to-date labour remuneration system in the public sector.

 

Reform in facts and figures

Labour Law and Off the Record Employment

The national labour law today is based on the Labour Code of Ukraine (hereinafter - LCU), laws of Ukraine “On Remuneration of Labour” and “On Vocations”. Over the time of existence of LCU, from 1973 till the present time, it was amended over 140 times, which allowed to solve topical issues of the social and labour sector. At the same time, LCU was developed for the industrial economy and does not allow to respond to the time challenges successfully, is not convenient for the modern creative and innovative economy as well as the small and medium business, fails to ensure an adequate flexibility level of labour relations, which employers of the 21st century are needed.

Moreover, the labour law does not allow to take full advantage of digital technologies (for instance remote employment appeared in the national law only in March 2020). As a result, the material part of labour relations is on the sidelines, which does not allow spreading the warranties provided for in the labour law for over 3,237 mln. of employees, and is a deterrent measure for the development of pioneering industries of the economy and does not allow to make full use of the strengths of our country (high level of education by the population and relatively high human development index). In addition, insufficient flexibility in labour relations as well hampers the development of “traditional” industries of the national economy.

High levels of informal employment deprive employees of labour and social guarantees, resulting in distortions of competition due to abuses in the labour market, discrediting the state social insurance system, lack of protection of the rights of employees working without formalization of their employment and deprivation of their pensions in the future, as well as a significant shortfall in state and local budgets and social insurance funds (depending on the methodology of calculations, the “shadow fund” of labour remuneration is estimated at UAH 364-493 billion, which leads to losses of budgets of all levels and social insurance funds at the level of UAH 151.1-204.6 billion per year).

The highest level of informal employment is observed in agriculture (44.7%), construction (17%) of wholesale and retail trade, repair of motor vehicles and motorcycles (15.9%), industry (5.6%), transport, warehousing, postal and courier activities (4.1%), temporary accommodation and catering (2.5%) and other types (10.5%).

The high level of bureaucratic burden on employers in the registration and maintenance of labour relations increases the administrative costs of employers, reduces the attractiveness of the official employment, and creates a reputation for Ukraine as an outdated system of social and labour relations, which is a deterrent to investment. Among other things, traditionally the strengths of Ukraine, such as a high level of education and a relatively high human development index, suitable for the development of up-to-date industries that are associated with imaginative and creative activities of employees and are not accompanied by significant capital expenditures (IT, freelance, scientific activity) cannot be fully used precisely because of the insufficiently up-to-date system of labour relations.

Labour Safety and Health

Today Ukraine has out-of-date and inefficient approaches to the organization of the labour safety and health system, which fails to react to the change of occupational injuries.

Within 2017-2019 fatal occupational injuries raised by 15% and the general one decreased by 11%. One can observe, however, a large proportion of non-fatal accidents. Raise of injuries in 2020 (+60% - general and 55% - fatal) is related to the risks due to the COVID-19 pandemic.

Therefore, the national occupational safety management system should be modernized on the principles of proactivity and prevention of occupational risks, encouraging employers to create safe and healthy working conditions in order to reduce injuries by strengthening the protection of life and health of employees and employers' responsibility for their safety.

Labour Remuneration in Public Sector

Today almost 2.5 mln. of employees from separate industries of the public sector (education, science, health care, social sector, culture, physical education and sports, etc.) are paid on the basis of the Unified Rate Schedule of Categories and Labour Remuneration Indexes (hereinafter - URS)

At the state level, the increase in official salaries of public sector employees is carried out on a uniform basis by increasing the official salary (tariff rate) of the employee of the 1st tariff category of URS, on the basis of which the official salaries of employees are calculated by other tariff categories.

Since 01.01.2017 the official salary (tariff rate) of the employee of the 1st tariff category of URS is set at the subsistence level for able-bodied persons as of January 1 of the relevant calendar year.

As of January 1, 2020, the ratio between the salary of an employee of the 1st tariff category (UAH 2,102) and the minimum wage (UAH 4,723) was 44.5 percent.

At the same time, wages in the public sector today are lower than in the private sector and the economy as a whole.

According to the latest statistics (March of this year), the average wage in Ukraine's economy was UAH 13,612, in education - UAH 10,959, in health care and social assistance - UAH 12,246, activities in the field of creativity, art, entertainment - UAH 10,614, functioning of libraries, archives, museums and other cultural institutions - UAH 9,815. At the same time, in the financial sphere - UAH 24,279, in the telecommunications sector - UAH 25,504, in public administration - UAH 16,505, in industry - UAH 14,995, in transport - UAH 12,540.

Increasing the remuneration level of public sector employees requires finding sources to cover additional expenditures of the state and local budgets. Thus, if the salary (tariff rate) of an employee of the 1st tariff category is increased to the level of the minimum wage, it will require more than doubling the wage fund of these employees and is unlikely to provide him with adequate financial resources.

Direction: Collective agreement-based regulation of labour remuneration, arrearage

The issue of labour remuneration in Ukraine shall be regulated by the law “On Remuneration of Labour”. One of the most important ways to increase the social protection of the population in Ukraine is the establishment of minimum wage.

According to Article 10 of the Law of Ukraine "On Remuneration of Labour", the amount of the minimum wage is set by the Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine at the request of the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine at least once a year in the Law on the State Budget of Ukraine taking into account the proposals made through negotiations (consultations) of the joint representative body of trade unions and the joint representative body of associations of employers' organizations at the national level.

The Law of Ukraine "On the State Budget of Ukraine for 2021" of 15.12.2020 No. 1082-IX increased the minimum wage from January 1, 2021, to UAH 6,000, and from December 1, 2021 - to UAH 6,500. Today the minimum wage exceeds the official subsistence level for able-bodied persons (UAH 2,270) set by 2021 by 2.6 times, and the actual subsistence level in March 2021 prices, including mandatory payments (UAH 5,444) - by 10.2%.

The budget declaration approved by the Government for 2022-2024 provides for an increase in the minimum wage:

  • since October 1, 2022 - UAH 6,700;
  • since January 1, 2023 - UAH 7,176;
  • since January 1, 2024 - UAH 7,665.

According to the operative data of the State Labour Inspectorate, as of 31.05.2021, arrears of wages amounted to UAH 3.03 billion, of which UAH 1.55 billion at enterprises subordinated to the CEB (*Central Executive Bodies).

Direction: Gender Pay Gap

Despite the relatively high level of gender pay gap (17.8% in the first quarter of 2021) compared to the level in most EU countries and other developed countries, the dynamics are positive - over the past 5 years, it has decreased by 4.5 percent, from 26% in 2015 to 20.5% in 2020.

 

What does the reform provide for? Stages for the reform implementation

Labour Law and Off the Record Employment

Given that multiple amendments were introduced to the LCU, and the act itself does not meet the time requirements, the Government and the Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine recodify the national labour law. However, on March 04, 2020, the draft Law of Ukraine “On Labour” (reg. No. 2708 dated December 28, 2019), initiated by the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine, was withdrawn from the Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine due to the resignation of the Prime Minister of Ukraine, and the agreed with the majority of stakeholders the revised draft law “On Labour” and the approaches proposed in it are generally not supported by the Joint Representative Body of Representative All-Ukrainian Trade Union Associations at a nationwide scale.

In view of this, the Ministry of Economy continues the cooperation aimed at the introduction of a comprehensive draft law to the Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine which will be a key regulatory enactment in the field of labour relations regulation.

At the same time, given the impossibility of submission of the comprehensive draft law to Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine as soon as possible, which is intended to replace the Labour Code of Ukraine, in order to solve the most pressing issues in the labour law the Ministry of Economy participates the development of a number of draft laws proposing targeted amendments to the Labour Code of Ukraine and other regulatory enactments.

Reform of labour legislation provides for deregulation and liberalization of labour relations, simplification of personnel documents, expansion of forms of employment and introduction of non-standard forms of employment into the legal field, the introduction of a system of pre-trial settlement of labour disputes (mediation), as well as bringing legislation in the field of labour relations, state supervision and monitoring of compliance with labour legislation and employment to international standards, in particular, strengthening the institutional capacity of state supervision and control bodies.

Labour Safety and Health

Paragraph 2 of the Action Plan for the Implementation of the Concept of Reform of the Labour Protection Management System in Ukraine, approved by Decree of the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine dated December 12, 2018, No. 989-r, provides for the development of a draft Law of Ukraine "On the Occupational Safety and Health of Employees” (hereinafter - the Draft Law).

The draft law provides for the creation of a new national system for the prevention of occupational risks by introducing a risk-oriented approach at the legislative level in the field of organizing the safety and health of employees and implementing the provisions of the Directive of the Council of 89/391/EEC on the introduction of measures to promote improvements in the field of occupational safety and health of employees during work.

The national occupational safety and health management system should be based on the principles of preventing industrial risks and encouraging employers to create safe and healthy working conditions in order to ensure the effective exercise of employees’ right to safe work. This facilitates, in particular:

- improving the protection level of life and health of employees;

- increasing the responsibility of employers to create adequate working conditions and safe working conditions;

- simplifying occupational safety and health legislation and reducing the administrative and regulatory burden on the employer;

- introduction of mechanisms to improve occupational safety and health for employees and related economic incentives;

- increasing fair competition, increasing access of Ukrainian enterprises to the international market and increasing their competitiveness in this market;

- gradual implementation of European Union norms into national legislation, etc. 

Labour Remuneration in Public Sector

In order to solve the problem of non-competitive level of wages in certain areas of the public sector, which leads to demotivation and outflow of qualified personnel to the private sector of the economy, it is proposed to regulate the conditions of remuneration of employees of the budget sphere and to gradually reduce the size of the official salary of the employee of the 1st tariff category of URS to the amount of 50% of the minimum wage (within the financial capabilities of the budget).

In order to overcome the disparity in the salaries of public servants and officials, managers and executives of certain state bodies, which are not covered by the Law of Ukraine "On Public Service" (terms of remuneration and salaries determined by the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine dated April 20, 2016 No. 304) one proposes to regulate the salary structure by increasing the share of salary by reducing incentives and maintaining differentiation in the levels of remuneration of officials, managers and executives of public bodies, which are not covered by the Law of Ukraine "On Civil Service", and public servants of the heads of the public service in the relevant state body.

In order to overcome the underrun of the base figure for the calculation of salaries, military salaries (special) ranks of military personnel, ordinary and commanding officers are proposed to ensure an increase in the components of cash support and the introduction of a mechanism for calculating salaries, salaries for military (special) ranks of military personnel, ordinary and commanding officers based on the updated base indicator (within the financial capacity of the budget, since the implementation of these changes will require significant additional spending from the state budget on cash security and recalculation of military pensions.)

In order to overcome the imbalance of salaries and salaries for military (special) ranks of police and servicemen, privates and officers, it is proposed to unify the size of the components of cash security of police officers in order to introduce a unified approach to state policy in the field of cash benefits chiefs and police.

Direction: collective agreement-based regulation of labour remuneration, arrearage

In order to reduce the significant amount of arrears of wages, it is proposed to prepare legislative changes to strengthen opportunities for employees to protect their rights, in particular, by:

- granting the right to the employee to temporarily suspend work in case of delay in payment of wages for more than 15 days;

- strengthening the responsibility of the guilty persons for violation of the wages payment terms;

- introduction of a penalty for each day of delay of wages at economically active enterprises, as well as compensation of wages in case of insolvency of the employer;

- empowerment of the guarantor institution for the payment of wage compensation in case of insolvency of the employer of the State Labour with the right to make recourse claims against debtor enterprises;

- direct the penalties imposed in accordance with Article 265 of the Labour Code to fill the guarantee institution;

- strengthening the function of control of central and local executive bodies over the state of payment of wages, compliance with the terms of contracts by heads of enterprises under their management;

- revision / termination of contracts with heads of state / municipal enterprises that increase wage arrears.

Direction: Gender Pay Gap

In this direction, it is envisaged to create conditions for reducing the gender pay gap by:

- increasing the transparency of wages;

- introduction of liability for violation of the legislation on equal pay for women and men for work of equal value;

- implementation of educational activities to overcome gender stereotypes and gender audits;

- promoting equal representation of men and women in managing positions;

- equalization of opportunities for men and women to combine family and work responsibilities;

- introduction of gender-neutral evaluation of works.

Approximate schedule of the draft law in the field of labour and occupation in 2021

 

What already has changed due to the reform?

Labour Law and Off the Record Employment

Extensive work was done during 2020 to overcome the COVID-19 pandemic outcomes, which in turn, allowed to approach the labour legislation to the up-to-date requirements.

Thus, in addition to organizational measures, systemic changes in labour legislation were also carried out. In particular, flexible forms of labour organization were regulated, as well as remote work was regulated, the possibility of granting leave for the period of quarantine, as well as the introduction of a business interruption mode (laws of Ukraine of March 17, 2020, No. 530-IX and March 30, 2020, No. 540- IX).

The issue of delimitation of work schedules of enterprises, institutions, organizations, which will provide the different time of beginning (end) of their work depending on the territorial location, industry affiliation, specifics of work or provision of services, which reduced the risk of disease of employees of these enterprises and prevent their closure or transfer to the business interruption mode (resolution of the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine dated December 09, 2020, No. 1236).

The criteria for inspections of business entities on labour protection, industrial safety, occupational health, handling of explosives for industrial purposes, labour, public employment, engagement and employment of the disabled, the implementation of state mining supervision by the State Labour Service (Resolution of the Cabinet of Ministers of May 20, 2020, No. 383).

On 04.03.2021 The President of Ukraine signed the Law of Ukraine dated 05.02.2021 No. 1217-IX “On Amendments to Certain Legislative Acts of Ukraine on Accounting for Employee Activity in Electronic Form”, which norms propose to replace hard copy bookkeeping with electronic accounting of employee activity in the Register insured persons of the State Register of Compulsory State Social Insurance.

On February 27, 2021 entered into force the Law of Ukraine dated 04.02.2021, No. 1213-IX “On Amendments to Certain Legislative Acts to Improve the Legal Regulation of Remote Work”, which rules provide for the separation of remote work and work from home, ensuring the employee's familiarity with the rules of internal labour regulations, collective agreement, local regulations of the employer, notices and other documents with which the employee must be acquainted in writing by exchanging electronic documents; providing the possibility of a remote acquaintance of the employee with the requirements for labour protection through the use of up-to-date information and communication technologies, including video communication.

Following the adoption of these laws, it was possible to partially solve the problem of significant administrative costs for registration and maintenance of labour relations, as well as the introduction of new forms of employment, which, in general, slightly increased the attractiveness of the registration of labour relations.

In addition, the draft laws were submitted to the Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine to define the concept of labour relations and signs of their existence at the legislative level (No. 5054 dated February 09, 2021), to regulate some non-standard forms of employment (No. 5161 dated March 16, 2021), and to deregulate labour relations (No. 5388 of April 16, 2021), on improving the procedure for resolving individual labour disputes (No. 5555 dated March 24, 2021).

Labour Safety and Health

A draft law on the safety and health of employees at work has been drafted and approved by the relevant authorities and the social partners. A wide range of stakeholders, in particular international partners, the scientific community, representatives of trade unions, employers, people's deputies of Ukraine, public organizations, etc., were involved in the conciliation meetings and the working group on the development of the draft law. According to the results of processing, a significant number of proposals to the draft law were received.

In order to harmonize the provisions of the Draft Law, a meeting of the tripartite working group was held on March 2, 2021, and a meeting with representatives of the Trade Union of Metallurgists and Miners of Ukraine was held on May 21, 2021.

As of 30.05.2021, the draft law has been revised, taking into account the received proposals and comments, and is being prepared for re-submission for approval to the interested bodies and social partners. 

Labour Remuneration in Public Sector

From 01.09.2020 the amount of the minimum wage at the legislative level was increased to 5,000 hryvnias. In order to maintain the ratio of 44.5 percent between the new minimum wage and the salary of an employee of the 1st tariff category and to prevent an increase in the gap between these indicators, the Government adopted Resolution No. 750, which established that from September 1 to December 31, 2020, the official salary of the employee of the 1st tariff category is determined in the amount of UAH 2,225, which is higher than the subsistence level for able-bodied persons as of 01.01.2020 - UAH 2,102.

In the context of the minimum wage increase in 2021 (from 01.01.2021 to UAH 6,000, from 01.12.2021 - to UAH 6,500) the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine adopted a resolution dated January 20, 2021, No. 29 “Some issues of remuneration of employees of the institutions, establishments and organizations of certain branches of the public sector”, according to which from 01.01.2021, the official salary of the employee of the 1st tariff category is set at UAH 2,670, and from 01.12.2021 - UAH 2,893 (subsistence level for able-bodied persons as of on 01.01.2021 - UAH 2,270).
 

Thanks to the decisions of the Government, the salaries of employees of certain sectors of the budget sphere will be increased by 15.8% in 2020 (compared to 2019), and by the end of 2021 - by 30% (compared to September 2020).

In 2020, the level of remuneration of local government employees was increased by an average of 9% (the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine adopted a resolution dated June 03, 2020, No. 441 “On Amendments to the Annexes to the Resolution of the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine of March 9, 2006, No. 268”).

The mechanism for determining salaries and terms of remuneration of members of the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine, First Deputy, Deputy Minister and heads of regional, Kyiv and Sevastopol city state administrations have been changed (Resolution of the Cabinet of Ministers dated February 05, 2020, No. 107 “On Amendments to the Resolution of the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine dated April 20, 2016, No. 304”).

Since the official salaries of certain categories of servicemen and officers holding senior positions are set at the level of salaries of senior government officials, the salaries of heads of law enforcement agencies have been increased (Resolution of the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine dated August 5, 2020, No. 679).

Also, taking into account the existing threats to introduce a special period, the Government has regulated the issue of staffing control points for employees performing service functions in peacetime, as well as for a special period (CMU Resolution dated March 19, 2021, No. 502 “Some issues of maintenance of suburban spare control points").

Direction: collective agreement-based regulation of labour remuneration, arrearage

In order to solve the problem of wage arrears growth, the Government established an Interdepartmental Working Group on Wage Debt Repayment (cash security) (Resolution of the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine dated October 28, 2020, No. 1007), which includes, in addition to representatives of key ministries and agencies, Representatives of the Joint Representative Body of Representative All-Ukrainian Trade Union Associations at the national level and the Joint Representative Body of Employers at the national-wide level were included.

Compliance with the terms of payment of wages at enterprises of all forms of ownership is under constant control of the State Labour Service of Ukraine and its territorial bodies. In order to facilitate the timely payment of wages and increase its level, there are temporary commissions established at the central and local executive bodies, which include representatives of the State Labour Service.

In addition, the Ministry of Economy has developed the following draft laws: “On Strengthening the Responsibility for Violation of the Terms of Wage Payment”, “On Strengthening the Protection of Employees’ Claims for Payment of Wage Arrears in Case of Insolvency of the Employer”, “On Guarantees of Minimum Wages and Labour Remuneration for Employees Engaged in Work with Harmful, Especially Harmful and Hazardous Working Conditions”, which currently undergo the approval procedure.

Direction: Gender Pay Gap

Ukraine has created legislative and institutional conditions that help equalize the rights and opportunities of women and men in the field of labour remuneration:

1) the key conventions of the International Labour Organization in this field (primarily the Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW), as well as the International Labour Organization Convention of 1951 on equal remuneration for men and women for work of equal value No. 100 were ratified;

2) the Law of Ukraine “On Ensuring Equal Rights and Opportunities for Women and Men” was adopted

3) the institution of the Government Commissioner for Gender Policy is functioning

4) the outdated ban on women's occupation of 450 professions was lifted (Order of the Ministry of Health of Ukraine No. 1254 dated October 13, 2017), etc.

In order to ensure equal rights and opportunities for women and men, including in the field of remuneration, Ukraine has joined the Equal Pay International Coalition (EPIC), co-founded by the International Labour Organization (ILO), the United Nations Framework for Gender Equality and Enlargement Women's Rights and Opportunities (UN Women) and the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development, as well as the Biarritz Partnership for Gender Equality.

 

Strategic objectives

Construction of an up-to-date system of labour relations allowing to realize the right to work guaranteed by the Constitution of Ukraine, safe and comfortable working conditions and a decent reward for every citizen of Ukraine.

Reducing the level of informal employment and extending the guarantees provided by labour legislation to employees who currently work without formalization of labour relations.

Defining new legal, organizational, economic and social principles of occupational safety and health in Ukraine and regulating social and labour relations in this area in order to ensure safe and healthy working conditions, life and health of employees at work.

Introduction, in accordance with Council Directive 89/391 / EEC, of a national system for the prevention of occupational hazards based on the principles of hazard elimination, assessment, control and management, effective and efficient promotion of safe and healthy working conditions at national, regional, sectoral and at the local level and at the level of the individual enterprise and workplace.

Building an effective system of remuneration in the public sector.

Creating preconditions for increasing the level of labour income of employees, strengthening the collective agreement-based regulation of wages.

Reduction of wage arrears.

Reducing the gender pay gap.

 

Goals and Objectives for the Current Year

1. Development, approval and submission to the Government, as well as support at meetings of government committees, the Government and committees of the Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine:

the draft Law of Ukraine “On Amendments to the Labour Code of Ukraine to Define the Concept of Labour Relations and Signs of Their Existence”;

the draft Law of Ukraine “On Amendments to Certain Legislative Acts of Ukraine Concerning Deregulation of Labour Relations”;

the draft Law of Ukraine “On Amendments to the Labour Code of Ukraine to Improve the Procedure for Resolving Individual Labour Disputes”;

the draft Law of Ukraine “On Amendments to Certain Legislative Acts of Ukraine Concerning the Regulation of Certain Non-Standard Forms of Employment;

the draft Law of Ukraine “On Occupational Safety and Health of Employees”;

the draft Law of Ukraine “On Strengthening the Responsibility for Violation of the Terms of Wage Payment”;

the draft Law of Ukraine "On strengthening the protection of employees' claims for payment of arrears of wages in case of insolvency of the employer";

of the draft Law of Ukraine "On Guarantees of Ensuring the Minimum Wage and Remuneration of Employees Employed in Harmful, Particularly Harmful and Dangerous Working Conditions".

2. Development, approval and submission to the Government, as well as support at meetings of government committees and the Government:

of the draft resolution of the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine “On Amendments to the Resolution of the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine of March 9, 2006 No. 268” regulation the remuneration of local government officials, in particular, in territorial communities;

of the draft resolution of the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine “On Amendments to the Resolution of the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine of April 20, 2016 No. 304” on approval of the ratio of salaries of individual executives, which are not covered by the Law of Ukraine “On Civil Service”;

of the draft resolution of the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine “On Amendments to the Resolution of the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine of October 19, 2016, No. 718” on bringing the financial support of a certain category of servicemen holding senior positions in intelligence agencies in accordance with Article 42 of the Law of Ukraine of September 17, 2020, No. 912-IX “On Intelligence”;

draft resolution of the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine "On the Labour Remuneration Conditions of Employees of the Center for Countering Disinformation";

of the draft resolution of the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine “On Amendments to the Resolution of the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine of April 20, 2016 No. 304 and dated January 18, 2017. No. 15” on streamlining the remuneration of the Head of the National Mediation and Conciliation Service, the First Deputy, the Deputy Head of the National Mediation and Conciliation Service and the Chief of Staff of the National Mediation and Conciliation Service.

3. Development and approval:

the draft Law of Ukraine "On Equal Remuneration for Work of Equal Value";

draft National Strategy to reduce the gender pay gap until 2023.

 

Responsible for implementing the reform

Ministry of Economy, State labour, interested CEB.


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